Kutter, C. Kyba, J. Law, I. Lawson, M. Lay, H. Lee, K. Lesko, J. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. Mak, A. Marino, N. McCauley, A. McDonald, D. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. Miller, G. Milton, B. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. Nally, M. Neubauer, F. Newcomer, H. Ng, A. Noble, E. Norman, V. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. Okada, R. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. Orrell, S. Oser, A. Poon, T. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. Robertson, R. Robertson, J.
Rusu, E. Saettler, K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. Smith, M. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. Steiger, R. Stokstad, R. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. Tanner, R. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P.
Trent, Y. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. Van de Water, C. Virtue, C. Waltham, J. Wang, D. Wark, N. West, J. Wilhelmy, J. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. Wouters, and M. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. Big World of Small Neutrinos. The three different neutrinos are complemented by anti of the neutrinos we detect will look different have a different flavor compared to the time they Big World of Small Neutrinos Neutrinos will find you!
Fig 1: Hubble image of the deep field. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment DUNE collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular kt fiducial mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.
Neutrinos from AGN. The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos , possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.
Rapid diagnosis of staphylococcal bacteremia directs appropriate antimicrobial therapy, leading to improved patient outcome. The analytic sensitivity was 1 CFU per reaction for the mecA gene and was 1 to CFU per reaction depending on the staphylococcal species present in the positive blood culture. Supernovae neutrino pasta interaction. In core-collapse supernovae, the neutron rich matter is believed to have complex structures, such as spherical, slablike, and rodlike shapes. Consequently, the neutrino pasta scattering is important to understand the neutrino opacity in the supernovae.
Our neutrino -pasta scattering effect can finally be involved in the current supernovae simulations and we present preliminary proto neutron star cooling simulations including our pasta opacities. A New Neutrino Oscillation. The findings implied that neutrinos must have mass, since massless particles travel at the speed of light and their clocks, so to speak, don't tick, thus they cannot change. Two of these mixing angles are known with reasonable precision.
The phase is completely unknown. The existence of this phase has important implications for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter we observe in the universe today. They see 6 candidate signal events, above an expected. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…. Neutrino physics with JUNO. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory JUNO , a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy MH as a primary physics goal.
The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements.
As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. Acquiring information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos. We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth.
We apply these methods to some current neutrino experiments. FFAGs: Front-end for neutrino factories and medical accelerators. It was independently introduced by Ohkawa [Ohkawa ], Symon et al. Since then, they have fabricated several electron models in the early s [Symon et al. However, the studies did not lead to a single practical FFAG accelerator for the following 50 years.
Because of the difficulties of treating non-linear magnetic field and RF acceleration for non-relativistic particles, the proton FFAG, especially, was not accomplished until recently. Since then, in many places [Berg ; Johnstone et al. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos.
High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test "vanilla" models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at " Neutrino ". Neutrinos : Nature's Ghosts? Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino.
Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties,as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.
Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. Generalized Factorial Moments. It is shown that the method of eliminating the statistical fluctuations from event-by-event analysis proposed recently by Fu and Liu can be rewritten in a compact form involving the generalized factorial moments.
Muons and neutrinos. The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high.
Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed. The discovery reach of CP violation in neutrino oscillation with non-standard interaction effects. We have studied the CP violation discovery reach in a neutrino oscillation experiment with superbeam, neutrino factory and monoenergetic neutrino beam from the electron capture process.
Particularly, for the superbeam and neutrino factory we have also considered relatively longer baselines for which there could be significant NSI effects on CP violation discovery reach for higher allowed values of NSI. For the monoenergetic beam only shorter baselines are considered to study CP violation with different nuclei as neutrino sources. Combination of shorter and longer baselines could indicate in some cases the presence of NSI. Using a neutrino beam from the electron capture process for nuclei Sn and Yb, we have shown the discovery reach of CP violation in a neutrino.
taylor.evolt.org/rokoh-del-dating-de.php After a brief introduction to neutrino oscillation, the article discusses how proposed detectors like PINGU and ORCA can use atmospheric neutrinos in the GeV range to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, one of the crucial unknowns in the neutrino sector of particle physics, and what uncertainties on external input parameters have to be taken into account. Experimental Neutrino Physics.
The UW group included senior investigator R.
Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters mass differences and mixing angles. Using the Super-Kamiokande SK detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos , and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg ], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K.
Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students both PhD and professional MS degree students , and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants. Reactor monitoring with Neutrinos. The fundamental knowledge on neutrinos acquired in the recent years open the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it the automatic and non intrusive monitoring of nuclear reactor by its antineutrino signal could be very valuable to IAEA in charge of the control of nuclear power plants.
Several efforts worldwide have already started. Neutrinos for Peace. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter- neutrino resonances. In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter- neutrino resonances MNRs can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino -electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other.
We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism.
We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.
This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory SNO experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from to By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth.
The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. Hardron production and neutrino beams. The precise measurements of the neutrino mixing parameters in the oscillation experiments at accelerators require new high-intensity and high-purity neutrino beams. Ancillary hadron-production measurements are then needed as inputs to precise calculation of neutrino beams and of atmospheric neutrino fluxes.
Solar neutrino spectroscopy. More than forty years after the first detection of neutrinos from the Sun, the spectroscopy of solar neutrinos has proven to be an on-going success story. The long-standing puzzle about the observed solar neutrino deficit has been resolved by the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillations. Today's experiments have been able to solidify the standard MSW-LMA oscillation scenario by performing precise measurements over the whole energy range of the solar neutrino spectrum.
This article reviews the enabling experimental technologies: On the one hand multi-kiloton-scale water Cherenkov detectors performing measurements in the high-energy regime of the spectrum, on the other end ultrapure liquid-scintillator detectors that allow for a low-threshold analysis. The current experimental results on the fluxes, spectra and time variation of the different components of the solar neutrino spectrum will be presented, setting them in the context of both neutrino oscillation physics and the hydrogen fusion processes embedded in the Standard Solar Model.
Finally, the physics potential of state-of-the-art detectors and a next generation of experiments based on novel techniques will be assessed in the context of the most interesting open questions in solar neutrino physics: a precise measurement of the vacuum-matter transition curve of electron- neutrino oscillation probability that offers a definitive test of the basic MSW-LMA scenario or the appearance of new physics; and a first detection of neutrinos from the CNO cycle that will provide new information on solar metallicity and stellar physics. Sterile neutrino dark matter production.
Sterile neutrinos provide active neutrinos with masses and mixing, and hence is one of the well-motivated candidate for dark matter. We discuss the sterile neutrino production mechanisms operating in the early Universe and show that additional scalar coupled to sterile neutrino can significantly change the situation, making moderate sterile- neutrino mixing and small sterile neutrino masses consistent with current cosmological and astrophysical bounds.
Further searches for a narrow line in galactic X-rays and even direct searches for keV-scale sterile neutrinos in particle physics experiments can probe the suggested setup. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments. We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states.
We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos. Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model.
Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model.
In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. This discrepancy is known as the "solar neutrino problem". Communicated by Toshimitsu Yamazaki, M. Physics prospects of future neutrino oscillation experiments in Asia. The three neutrino model has 9 physical parameters, 3 neutrino masses, 3 mixing angles and 3 CP violating phases. Among them, neutrino oscillation experiments can probe 6 neutrino parameters: 2 mass squared differences, 3 mixing angles, and 1 CP phase.
The experiments performed so far determined the magnitudes of the two mass squared differences, the sign of the smaller mass squared difference, the magnitudes of two of the three mixing angles, and the upper bound on the third mixing angle. The sign of the larger mass squared difference the neutrino mass hierarchy pattern , the magnitude of the third mixing angle and the CP violating phase, and a two-fold ambiguity in the mixing angle that dictates the atmospheric neutrino oscillation should be determined by future oscillation experiments.
If such a detector can be built in China, future experiments with a muon storage ring neutrino factory at J-PARC will be able to lift all the degeneracies in the three neutrino model parameters. Mg-Al anti-correlation in iDR 4 globular clusters. Pancino, E. The results compare well with the available literature, within 0. The extent and shape of the Mg-Al anti-correlation provide strong constraints on the multiple population phenomenon in globular clusters.
In particular, we studied the dependency of the Mg-Al anti-correlation extension with metallicity, present-day mass,and age of the clusters, using GES data in combination with a large set of homogenized literature measurements. We find a dependency with both metallicity and mass, which is evident when fitting for the two parameters simultaneously, but we do not find significant dependency with age. We confirm that the Mg-Al anti-correlation is not seen in all clusters, but disappears for the less massive or most metal-rich clusters. We conclude that GES iDR 4 data already meet the requirements set by the main survey goals and can be used to study globular clusters in detail, even if the analysis procedures were not specifically designed for them.
Absolute neutrino mass measurements. The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2. The technology needed to reach 0. Neutrino Oscillations Physics. We review the status of the neutrino oscillations physics, with a particular emphasis on the present knowledge of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters.
Such indications, presently dominated by SK, could be strengthened by further K2K data. Then we point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, in particular the KamLAND data, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein MSW effects. Finally, we perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos in the standard MSW case.
Neutrino -Driven Explosions. The question why and how core-collapse supernovae SNe explode is one of the central and most long-standing riddles of stellar astrophysics. Solving this problem is crucial for deciphering the supernova SN phenomenon; for predicting its observable signals such as light curves and spectra, nucleosynthesis yields, neutrinos , and gravitational waves; for defining the role of SNe in the dynamical and chemo-dynamical evolution of galaxies; and for explaining the birth conditions and properties of neutron stars NSs and stellar-mass black holes.
Since the formation of such compact remnants releases over hundred times more energy in neutrinos than the kinetic energy of the SN explosion, neutrinos can be the decisive agents for powering the SN outburst.
According to the standard paradigm of the neutrino -driven mechanism, the energy transfer by the intense neutrino flux to the medium behind the stagnating core bounce shock, assisted by violent hydrodynamic mass motions sometimes subsumed by the term "turbulence" , revives the outward shock motion and thus initiates the SN explosion. Because of the weak coupling of neutrinos in the region of this energy deposition, detailed, multidimensional hydrodynamic models including neutrino transport and a wide variety of physics are needed to assess the viability of the mechanism.
Owing to advanced numerical codes and increasing supercomputer power, considerable progress has been achieved in our understanding of the physical processes that have to act in concert for the success of neutrino -driven explosions. First studies begin to reveal observational implications and avenues to test the theoretical picture by data from individual SNe and SN remnants but also from population-integrated observables. While models will be further refined, a real breakthrough is expected through the next galactic core-collapse SN, when neutrinos and gravitational waves can be used to probe the conditions deep inside the dying star.
The Clone Factory. Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…. The Learning Factory.
This book looks at the administration of an academic institution as a learning factory which needs to be run like a business, competing with other businesses offering the same service. The book begins with a discussion of the concepts of the continuing education learning market, the playing fields and rules of the games, as well as the idea of….
The Old Factory. Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…. Neutrinos : Nature's Identity Thieves?
The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known.
In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery. Since , the Illicit Drug Reporting System IDRS , Australia's strategic early warning system for illicit drug trends, has monitored annual trends in the markets for the four main illicit drug classes, cannabis, methamphetamine, cocaine and heroin. In , a 2-year trial was implemented to examine the feasibility of using similar methodology to monitor trends in the markets for 'party drugs'. A triangulation of three data sources was sought: 1 quantitative interviews with a 'sentinel' population of drug users; 2 qualitative interviews with key informants KIs , or those who have contact with drug users through their work; 3 extant indicator data sources such as the purity of illicit drugs seized by law enforcement agencies.
The results suggested that the feasibility of collecting detailed, reliable and valid data about party drug markets is a direct function of the size of those markets. The trial demonstrated that the system would allow the successful monitoring of markets for party drugs that are relatively widely used, such as ecstasy, but would be less sensitive in monitoring markets for party drugs that are used by small proportions of the total population, such as gamma-hydroxy-butyrate GHB and ketamine. Methodological issues encountered during the conduct of this trial are discussed, including defining the appropriate sentinel population of drug users, identifying relevant key informants, and the relative absence of extant indicator data sources that could inform our understanding of party drug markets.
Detecting the Neutrino.
In Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino , was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr. They succeeded in The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result.
This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino 's detection by the physics community. Light sterile neutrinos. The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed.
The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed.
The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.
Features of neutrino mixing. The elements squared of the neutrino mixing matrix are found to satisfy, as functions of the induced mass, a set of differential equations. They show clearly the dominance of pole terms when the neutrino masses "cross. The results are applicable to long baseline experiments. With an effective telescope area of order 10 4 m 2 for TeVneutrinos, a threshold near similar to 50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of2. We describe early results on the calibrationof natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA'sperformance as a neutrino telescope.
Mass relation for neutrinos. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos. Kajino, T. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric SUSY particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously.
The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, La and Ta and r-process elements.
Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein MSW effect. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos SRN that may indicate the softness of the equation of state EoS of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation. With its 40 tonne active liquid xenon target, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level, DARWIN can also search for other rare interactions.
Here we present its sensitivity to low-energy solar neutrinos and to neutrinoless double beta decay. Deviations from the predicted but yet unmeasured neutrino flux would be an indication for physics beyond the Standard Model. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications. In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients.
Some latent properties…. Hazardous factories : Nigerian evidence. The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives.
However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5, workers were studied.
One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you! Published by Timothy Houston Modified over 3 years ago.
Betabeam DS approved! Higher energy and higher rate betabeams heading to detectors at intermediate distances thou technically more difficult beta acceleration in new higher energy SPS or LHC! Construction window. Garoby will no doubt greatly help. Garoby J. Cazes et al Nufact GeV S.
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